https://thetherapist.com.pk/index.php/tt/issue/feed THE THERAPIST (Journal of Therapies & Rehabilitation Sciences) 2024-01-11T09:23:55+00:00 Riffat Mehboob editor@thetherapist.com.pk Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Title of Journal: </strong><strong>THE THERAPIST (ISSN Online: 2790-7414, Print: 2790-7406)</strong></p> <p><strong>Frequency: Quaterly (w.e.f 1<sup>st</sup> Jan, 2023)</strong></p> <p><strong>Affiliated with:</strong> Lahore Medical Research Center</p> <p><strong>Website:</strong> (<a href="http://www.lmrc.com.pk">www.lmrc.com.pk</a>)</p> <p><strong>Published By:</strong> CrossLinks International Publishers (CLIP), Lahore, Pakistan</p> <p><strong>Website:</strong> (<a href="http://www.clip.com.pk">www.clip.com.pk</a>)</p> <p><strong>Address:</strong> 590-Karim Block, Allama Iqbal Town, Lahore, Pakistan</p> <p>‘The Therapist’, abbreviated as ‘TT’ is an official journal of ‘Lahore Medical Research Center’ (LMRC), LLP. We are pleased to announce the launch of this journal of physical therapy and rehabilitation sciences as well as other therapies are also included within the scope such as stem cell therapy, speech therapy, psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, radiotherapy, dialectial behavior therapy, Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, Mentalization-based therapy, animal-assisted therapy, emotion focused therapy, family therapy, group therapy, mind-fulness-based therapy, virtual therapy, exposure therapy, interpersonal therapy, diet <br />therapy, virtual therapy, hydrotherapy, heat therapy are among the few. <br />Mission of this journal is to publish the studies in the above areas and relevant disciplines. These researches will be of great significance and may contribute to the awareness and understanding of the impact of different therapies <br />on human health improvement. To our knowledge this is the first journal with this unique scope. Studies related to these topic are most welcome from national and international authors. It will help all of us to work as global team to do something for the betterment of ailing humanity and share ideas for this noble cause .</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Accreditation:</strong></span></p> <p><strong>Approved by Higher Education Commission of Pakistan for the year 2023-24</strong></p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Fee &amp; Subscription Charges</strong></span></p> <p>Article Processing Fee: <strong>NONE</strong></p> <p>Article Publication Fee (National) Rs 20000 / Article</p> <p>Article Publication Fee (International ) 200 USD / Article</p> <p>Printed Version (Selected Articles on Authors Request): Rs 2500/per copy</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Annual Subscription for Printed Versions</strong></span></p> <p>For Institutes: Rs 20,000/ Annually</p> <p>Single Copy (Selected Articles): Rs 2500/-</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Waiver Policy</strong></span></p> <p>If an author has no funds to pay such charges, he may request for full or partial waiver of publication fees. The decision may however vary from case to case.</p> <p>We do not want charges to prevent the publication of worthy material.</p> <p><strong><u>Submissions</u></strong></p> <p>Submission are welcome and may be submitted here <a href="mailto:editor@thetherapist.com.pk">editor@thetherapist.com.pk</a></p> https://thetherapist.com.pk/index.php/tt/article/view/53 The Effects of Smartphones on Child Health 2022-11-14T15:50:18+00:00 Fahad Tanveer fahadtanveer3.pt@gmail.com <p>Over the last ten years, technology has advanced significantly, and more people throughout the world have access to smartphones. Because of the increased use of technology, including cellphones, children are leading more sedentary lifestyles. Long-term smartphone usage has sparked further questions about possible changes in spinal posture, continual neck flexion, restrictions on neck motions, and declines in pulmonary function.</p> <p>According to data from the Pew Research Center, the proportion of smartphone users in emerging and developing nations increased quickly from 21% in 2013 to 37% in 2015. By 2020, the numbers are projected to be 6.4 billion smartphone subscribers, or around 70% of the world's population. In the US, 84% of teenagers aged 13 to 19 and 79% of children aged 9 to 12 possess cellphones, and by the time they are 12 years old, they use their smartphones on average for five hours each day [1]. Mobile phones have reportedly become a need for young people and children, according to Pakistani research on cell phone habits among teens in southern Punjab [2].</p> <p>Due to the rise in smartphone use among kids and teenagers, their musculoskeletal systems are significantly impacted. Obesity, poor posture, and thoracic limitation brought on by muscular imbalances are linked to the decline in fundamental physical fitness. The aforementioned issues often lead to a decline in pulmonary function. Musculoskeletal problems are likely to worsen with time, particularly if users see their cellphones with their heads flexed. Excessive smartphone usage may also affect the cervical angle scan, especially if users don't keep their posture neutral, which might put more strain on the cervical spine. Constant forward neck flexion when using a smartphone causes the lower cervical spine to bend excessively, which is linked to decreased lung function and respiratory muscle power. In terms of psychology, excessive smartphone usage weakens social bonds and increases loneliness, sadness, and social anxiety, leading to mental immaturity, emotional instability, inattentiveness, and lack of self-control in kids. Increased sleep issues are also linked to increased mobile phone use.</p> <p>Despite certain benefits, the increased use of cell phones has raised a lot of concerns over their negative impacts on academic performance, health, and character development. Several health issues are also related to increased smartphone usage in children. To maintain posture, cranio-cervical and improved respiratory function, instruction on optimal smartphone using posture as well as information on the implications of prolonged smartphone usage are required.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 THE THERAPIST (Journal of Therapies & Rehabilitation Sciences) https://thetherapist.com.pk/index.php/tt/article/view/66 Role of Motivation in Academic Achievement among Medical Students: Mediating Role of Self-Efficacy 2023-11-30T17:58:06+00:00 Atiqa Habib atiqahabib4@gamil.com Rabia Hanif drabia.hanif@riphah.edu.pk Rabia Riaz drabia.hanif@riphah.edu.pk <p><span class="TextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0">Motivation</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0"> acts as a major factor </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0">in</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0"> making sound decisions and actions. The following study </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0">was conducted</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0"> to investigate the relationship between motivation and academic achievement among medical students, along with</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0">exploring the mediating role of self-efficacy. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0">Objective:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0">To</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0"> look for the relationship within motivation, academic </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0">achievement</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0"> and self-efficacy among medical students, investigate the mediating role of self-efficacy among motivation and academic achievement and to investigate the role of various demographic factors.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0">Method</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0">:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0">To test the hypothesis, questionnaires </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0">used </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0">for accessing motivation </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0">and academic achievement were </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0">SMMS-R </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0">and percentages </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0">whereas</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0">se</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0">lf-efficacy was measured via</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0"> General Self-efficacy and Academic Self-efficacy scale. The study</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0"> sample</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0"> includes females (n=183) and males (n=115) </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0">with MBBS student being the inclusion criteria and non-MBBS students set as exclusion criteria where the data </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0">were</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0"> collected </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0">through</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0"> convenience sampling technique</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0"> and calculated based on G-power</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0">.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0">Results</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0">:</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0"> were analyzed through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS)</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0"> version</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0">26.0 </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0">using Pearson Correlation to see the relationship between variables and </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0">i</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0">ndependent sample t-test to see gender differences. Results showed Academic achievement was positively correlated with the motivation. A significant positive correlation of motivation with General self-efficacy and a strong negative correlation was found between Academic Self-efficacy and strength of motivation among medical students. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0">Conclusion</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0">: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW179414664 BCX0">By using this study, we will be able to understand the role of motivation and self-efficacy on academic achievement among medical students and how it varies across gender. </span></span><span class="EOP SCXW179414664 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 THE THERAPIST (Journal of Therapies & Rehabilitation Sciences) https://thetherapist.com.pk/index.php/tt/article/view/176 Prevalence of Musculo-Skeletal Pain among Badminton Players in Twin Cities of Pakistan 2023-12-26T17:08:52+00:00 Rabia Ejaz 1@gmail.com Muhammad Nazim Farooq 1@gmail.com Fatima Amjad 1@gmail.com Rubia Batool 1@gmail.com Humam Khalil 1@gmail.com Areej Tasnim 1@gmail.com Anees Arshad 1@gmail.com Arfa Zafar 1@gmail.com Amna Khalid amnakhalid@gcuf.edu.pk <p><span class="TextRun SCXW140108631 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140108631 BCX0">Badminton is a popular sport with a rich tradition in Pakistan twin cities Islamabad and Rawalpindi.</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140108631 BCX0">In badminton, players are more susceptible to certain musculoskeletal problems due to the sport's dynamic character, abrupt </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140108631 BCX0">accelerations</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140108631 BCX0"> and decelerations. Badminton has an injury rate of 1 to 7/1000 hours per person of playing time.</span></span> <span class="TextRun SCXW140108631 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140108631 BCX0" data-ccp-charstyle="Heading 1 Char">Objective</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140108631 BCX0" data-ccp-charstyle="Heading 1 Char">:</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW140108631 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140108631 BCX0" data-ccp-charstyle="Heading 1 Char">To </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140108631 BCX0" data-ccp-charstyle="Heading 1 Char">find out prevalence of musculoskeletal problem including pain among the badminton players played in various clubs of Islamabad and Rawalpindi.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW140108631 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140108631 BCX0" data-ccp-charstyle="Heading 1 Char">Method</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140108631 BCX0" data-ccp-charstyle="Heading 1 Char">s:</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW140108631 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140108631 BCX0" data-ccp-charstyle="Heading 1 Char">255 badminton players </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140108631 BCX0" data-ccp-charstyle="Heading 1 Char">participated</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140108631 BCX0" data-ccp-charstyle="Heading 1 Char"> in a convenience sample-based cross-sectional study after ethical permission. The incidence of musculoskeletal discomfort in novice badminton players' shoulder, elbow, wris</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140108631 BCX0" data-ccp-charstyle="Heading 1 Char">t</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140108631 BCX0" data-ccp-charstyle="Heading 1 Char">,</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140108631 BCX0" data-ccp-charstyle="Heading 1 Char">hands, thigh, hips, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140108631 BCX0" data-ccp-charstyle="Heading 1 Char">knee</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140108631 BCX0" data-ccp-charstyle="Heading 1 Char"> and ankle was measured using a self-drafted survey and the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140108631 BCX0" data-ccp-charstyle="Heading 1 Char">. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140108631 BCX0" data-ccp-charstyle="Heading 1 Char">Data collection </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140108631 BCX0" data-ccp-charstyle="Heading 1 Char">was done sports</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140108631 BCX0" data-ccp-charstyle="Heading 1 Char"> clubs of Islamabad and Rawalpindi.</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140108631 BCX0" data-ccp-charstyle="Heading 1 Char">Study ran from September 22, 2021, to June 30, 2022.</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW140108631 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140108631 BCX0"> SPSS</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140108631 BCX0"> version-</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140108631 BCX0">25 software was used for data analysis.</span></span> <span class="TextRun SCXW140108631 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140108631 BCX0" data-ccp-charstyle="Heading 1 Char">Results</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW140108631 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140108631 BCX0" data-ccp-charstyle="Heading 1 Char">: </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140108631 BCX0" data-ccp-charstyle="Heading 1 Char">The results showed prevalence was 16.5, back 18.4, hip 7.4, knee 28.6, ankle 16.5, elbow 22.4, wrist 21.2, low back 12.9, and shoulder 49.4. Among badminton players, the most common pain regions were the shoulder and knee. Other areas that players are less likely to have discomfort in include the hands, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140108631 BCX0" data-ccp-charstyle="Heading 1 Char">hips</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140108631 BCX0" data-ccp-charstyle="Heading 1 Char"> and ankles.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW140108631 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140108631 BCX0" data-ccp-charstyle="Heading 1 Char">Conclusions:</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW140108631 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140108631 BCX0">Conclusions of study showed younger athletes had higher prevalence of musculoskeletal discomfort. Most prevalent</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW140108631 BCX0">pain areas among badminton players were the knee and shoulder. </span></span><span class="EOP SCXW140108631 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 THE THERAPIST (Journal of Therapies & Rehabilitation Sciences) https://thetherapist.com.pk/index.php/tt/article/view/174 Prevalence of Achilles Tendinopathy among Physical Therapists of Pakistan 2023-12-15T09:29:01+00:00 Rafia Rafiq raffia.rafiq90@gmail.com Yumna Ilyas yumnailyas04@gmail.com Ayesha Aftab ayeshaftab2008@gmail.com Sidra Sohail sidraa.sohail25@gmail.com Kashmala Zia kashoozia25@gmail.com Sana Batool sanabatool552@gmail.com Komal Jamil komalansari4@gmail.com <p>It is a degenerative disease that affects the tendon of Achilles, which attaches the gastrocnemius muscle to the heel bone. The rate of prevalence in the general population is about 6 percent, in athletes about 24 percent, 36 percent in short-distance runners, and in middle and long-distance runners about 52 percent. <strong>Objective: </strong>To determine the frequency of Achilles tendinopathy in Physical therapists of Pakistan. <strong>Methods: </strong>The cross-sectional study was done through an online survey among the Physical Therapists of Pakistan. The estimated sample size calculated from the Raosoft.com software was 449 participants. The sampling technique used in this study was convenient. The data was collected through a validated questionnaire named a Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment- Achilles( VISA-A) measurement tool, ranging from 0 to 100 in which higher scores showed least symptoms while lower scores showed severe symptoms. Statistical analysis was done through SPSS version 23.0. <strong>Results: </strong>Out of 449 research participants between the ages of 22 to 50 years were evaluated through a validated questionnaire and the result shows 298 (66.36%) of participants participated in sports activities and the level of pain was evaluated as 95(21.15%) of participants fell in healthy, 238(53%) in mild, 97(21.60%) in moderate however 19(4.23%) participants fall in severe category of pain. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>Our study concluded that the occurance of Achilles tendinopathy is uncommon among the physical therapists population of Pakistan.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 THE THERAPIST (Journal of Therapies & Rehabilitation Sciences) https://thetherapist.com.pk/index.php/tt/article/view/178 Assessing the Therapeutic Impact of Virtual Reality Interventions on Upper Limb Range of Motion and Functional Mobility in Pediatric Patients with Spastic Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy: A Faisalabad-based Study 2023-12-28T06:36:04+00:00 Tamjeed Ghaffar 1@gmail.com Nairish Karim 1@gmail.com Saania Kanwal Khanzada 1@gmail.com Amina Irfan 1@gmail.com Ayesha Javed 1@gmail.com Muqaddas Bibi 1@gmail.com Amna Khalid amnakhalid2127@gmail.com <p><span class="TextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0">Cerebral palsy is a non-progressive central nervous system injury, most common in children, resulting from the damage to brain.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0">Objectives: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0">T</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0">o </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0">see the effects of non-immersive virtual reality on range of motion, muscle strength, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0">spasticity</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0"> and functional mobility of upper limb in spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy children</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0">. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0">Method</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0">: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0">This was a </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0">quasi-experimental</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0"> study, in </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0">which participants were selected</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0"> through simple random sampling </span><span class="NormalTextRun AdvancedProofingIssueV2Themed SCXW182842077 BCX0">on the basis of</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0">defined </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0">selection criteria, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0">t</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0">here </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0">were</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0"> two groups</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0">. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0">Group A </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0">received</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0"> conventional physical therapy exercises and group B was a </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0">received</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0"> functional mobility exercises using non-immersive virtual reality. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0">Data collection tools included Modified Ashworth scale to measure the spasticity, Functional assessment scale for functional status, Goniometer was used to measure the rage of mobility and Manual muscle testing MMT was used to measure the strength. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0">Data was analyzed by SPSS version 26.</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0">Results:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0">Mean</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0"> age of</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0"> child</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0">ren was 9.818</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0">±</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0">2.639.</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0"> From total participants 63.6% were males and 36.4% were females CP child. Paired-t test sowed that, there was a </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0">statistically</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0"> significant difference in means of all outcome measures before and after treatment in group-A as well as in group–B (p-value&lt;0.05). Between-group analysis of A and B showed a </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0">statistically</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0"> significant difference with p</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0">-</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0">value ≤0.05.</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0">Conclusion</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0">s</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0">:</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182842077 BCX0">Both groups showed improvement in spasticity, functional status, range of motion and muscle strength, but treatment group receiving functional mobility exercises using non-immersive virtual reality was found to be more effective than the control group.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW182842077 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 THE THERAPIST (Journal of Therapies & Rehabilitation Sciences) https://thetherapist.com.pk/index.php/tt/article/view/175 Comparative Analysis of Fall Prevention Strategies: Assessing the Efficacy of Transfer Techniques versus Routine Physical Therapy in Wheelchair-Using Stroke Patient 2023-12-28T06:41:33+00:00 Usama Arif 1@gmail.com Tamjeed Ghaffar 1@gmail.com Malaika Yasin 1@gmail.com Dur e Najoom Bazgha 1@gmail.com Pakeza Sarwar 1@gmail.com Kiran Shafique 1@gmail.com Amna Khalid amnakhalid2127@gmail.com <p><span class="TextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0">Stroke is often caused by high blood pressure or aneurysm. It leads to mobility issues such as hemiplegia, quadriplegia, and hemiparesis.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0">Objective</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0">:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0">To</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0">determine</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0"> the effects of transfer techniques or routine physical therapy to prevent fall from </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0">wheel</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0">chair</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0"> in private and public hospitals of Faisalabad and their comparison.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0">Methods:</span></span> <span class="TextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0">This was </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0">a quasi-experimental </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0">trial</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0">. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0">Through purposive sampling, </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0">30 participants were selected </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0">and </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0">allocated</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0"> to</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0"> two group</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0"> i.e.</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0">,</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0"> group A (routine exercise group) and group B (transfer training group) with 15 participants in each group. Both groups received training for six weeks, with two training sessions per week. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0">The Time Up and Go test, Balance Berg scale and Fall Efficacy Scale were used to access the fall ratio. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0">SPSS version 26</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0">.0</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0"> was used to analyze and interpret results. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0">Result</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0">s</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0">: </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0">Mean age of the patient was 38.17±3.742. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0">63.3% were males and 36.7% were female patients. Within group analysis showed that both transfer techniques and routine physical therapy was effective in fall prevention with p</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0">-</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0">value &lt; 0.05. Between group analyses showed that, there was </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0">statistically</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0"> significant difference in both transfer techniques and routine physical therapy after the treatment of six weeks (p&lt;0.05).</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0">Conclusion</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0">s</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0">:</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0">Both</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0"> transfer techniques and routine physical therapy w</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0">ere</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0"> effective in fall prevention. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0">But transfer techniques w</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0">ere</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW36169229 BCX0"> found to be more effective in fall prevention than only the routine physical therapy and significant differences in the results were seen after the treatment in Fall Efficacy Scale (FES).</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW36169229 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 THE THERAPIST (Journal of Therapies & Rehabilitation Sciences) https://thetherapist.com.pk/index.php/tt/article/view/177 Prevalence of Cervicogenic Headache and Its Association with Upper Crossed Syndrome in Dentists 2024-01-11T09:23:55+00:00 Hira Ghous 1@gmail.com Saba Ghous 1@gmail.com Rabail Asim 1@gmail.com . Quratulain 1@gmail.com . Rabbyya 1@gmail.com Muhammad Umer Farooq Mujahid 1@gmail.com Muhammad Arslan 1@gmail.com Amna Khalid amnakhalid2127@gmail.com <p>Cervicogenic headaches refer to a type of headache that originates from the cervical spine can be exacerbated by certain neck movements. Recognizing the link between cervicogenic headaches and Upper Cross Syndrome allows for targeted diagnostic assessments. Objective: To examine the relationship between cervicogenic headaches and USC in dental professionals and deeper understanding of the impact of occupational factors on the occurrence and severity of these headaches. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 180 participants selected through purposive sampling technique. Inclusion Criteria was both genders between 20 and 50 years age dentist · Having sitting duration of 3 hour or more than 3 hours. Exclusion Criteria was any malignancy related to soft tissues and joints. Study ran from 1 March 2022 to 30 September 2022. Results: The cervical flexion rotation test was positive in 40.7% i.e. 44 participants and is negative in 59.3% i.e. 64 participants. The pectoralis major contracture test was positive in 45.4% i.e. 45 participants and is negative in 54.6% i.e. 59 participants and there is a relation between cervicogenic headache and upper crossed syndrome and in dentists. Conclusions: The findings of this research highlight a substantial prevalence of cervicogenic headache among dentists 45.4% and emphasize a significant association between cervicogenic headache and the presence of upper crossed syndrome. These results provide valuable insights for dental professionals, clinicians, and policymakers to implement appropriate interventions and ergonomic strategies to mitigate the burden of cervicogenic headache in dental practice.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 THE THERAPIST (Journal of Therapies & Rehabilitation Sciences) https://thetherapist.com.pk/index.php/tt/article/view/183 Effect of Ergonomic Practices on Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS) symptoms among undergraduate and postgraduate IT students of University of Chakwal 2024-01-05T10:11:50+00:00 Shajeea Jabeen 1@gmail.com Mehreen Khalid 2@gmail.com Rizwana Shahid drriz_shahid@yahoo.com Iqra Khalil 3@gmail.com Sajjad Haider 1@gmail.com Ushana Jamil 1@gmail.com <p>Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS) is common nowadays among students due to constant working on computer. In addition to various visual and ocular disorders, there is also periodic rise in their musculoskeletal problems. <strong>Objective:</strong> To determine the effect of visual ergonomics on CVS among IT university students of Chakwal. <strong>Methods: </strong>A cross-sectional descriptive study was done in IT department of the University of Chakwal from October-December 2021. About 65 undergraduate and postgraduate IT students studying in the University of Chakwal were enrolled through consecutive sampling. Students using computers and having symptoms of Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS), refractive error and convergence insufficiency were included. The data were gathered for visual effects in response to different ergonomics and was analysed by SPSS 25.0 and Microsoft Excel 2016. P ≤0.05 was taken as significant. <strong>Results:</strong> Of the 65 students, most (72.3%) were undergraduate students. Almost 55.4% complained of severe neck / shoulder pain and dryness of eyes. 39% used to do computer work for 1-4 hours / day. Students working for 1-4 hours at home had less blinking and watering of eyes in addition to eyestrain (p&lt; 0.05). There was significant association of mild headache (p&lt;0.02) and minimal photophobia (p&lt;0.05) with 1-4 hours computer work at home. Taking break up to 1 hour had significant association with mildness of eye burning, crossing and redness (p&lt;0.05). <strong>Conclusions</strong><strong>:</strong> IT students had moderate to severe dryness of eyes, neck and shoulder pain. Not spending more than four consecutive hours on computer work and taking at least one hour break is imperative to avoid severe symptoms</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 THE THERAPIST (Journal of Therapies & Rehabilitation Sciences) https://thetherapist.com.pk/index.php/tt/article/view/104 Mechanical Causes of Osteoarthritis in Adults, its Diagnosis and Treatment 2023-12-25T17:00:01+00:00 Maria Fayyaz mariafayyaz58@gmail.com Bushra Muneer bushramuneer11@yahoo.co.uk Aqsa Iqbal aqsaiqbal949@gmail.com Mohammad Asad Bilal Asadbilal22223@gmail.com Huma Tabassum benishislam3@gmail.com Sumbal Shahbaz usra.naeem1@gmail.com <p><span class="TextRun SCXW210136790 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW210136790 BCX0">Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most devastating chronic conditions that affects </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW210136790 BCX0">adults and aged </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW210136790 BCX0">people around t</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW210136790 BCX0">he world. After the age of 65 years,</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW210136790 BCX0"> osteoarthritis affects women</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW210136790 BCX0"> (70%)</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW210136790 BCX0"> more </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW210136790 BCX0">frequently</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW210136790 BCX0"> than it does</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW210136790 BCX0"> in</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW210136790 BCX0"> men</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW210136790 BCX0"> (60%)</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW210136790 BCX0">.</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW210136790 BCX0"> The </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW210136790 BCX0">objective</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW210136790 BCX0"> of this study is to find the</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW210136790 BCX0"> main</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW210136790 BCX0"> causes and treatment strategies for OA.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW210136790 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW210136790 BCX0">The etiology of OA is multifactorial, with metabolic, inflammatory, and mechanical causes.</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW210136790 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW210136790 BCX0"> </span><span class="NormalTextRun AdvancedProofingIssueV2Themed SCXW210136790 BCX0">A number of</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW210136790 BCX0"> risk factors including occupation, obesity and injury may </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW210136790 BCX0">initiate</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW210136790 BCX0"> various pathological pathways. The main goals of treatment are to minimize impairment, enhance function, and effectively manage pain. In cases of moderate to severe pain, acetaminophen and NSAIDs are more beneficial; nevertheless, they carry a higher risk of major side events involving the upper gastrointestinal tract. The most researched and successful nonpharmacological therapies are patient education, self-management, and exercise. Although nonpharmacological interventions are regularly and widely </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW210136790 BCX0">utilized</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW210136790 BCX0"> in the therapy of OA patients, there is little evidence that they are helpful. Requiring a periodic assessment and adjustments of therapy rather than the strict continuation of a single treatment, as the patient's requirements and the course of the disease typically alter over time</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW210136790 BCX0">.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW210136790 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 THE THERAPIST (Journal of Therapies & Rehabilitation Sciences) https://thetherapist.com.pk/index.php/tt/article/view/184 Cognitive Behavior Therapy as Relapse Prevention for Opioid Use Disorders 2024-01-05T10:13:34+00:00 Mafia Shahzadi mafiashahzadi62@gmail.com Mehwish Jabeen 1@gmail.com Aqila Unbrin 1@gmail.com Qurat Ul-Ain 1@gmail.com Zobia Amin 1@gmail.com <p><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW230442768 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW230442768 BCX0">Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a prevailing psychiatric illness that </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW230442768 BCX0">provides</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW230442768 BCX0"> foundations of morbidity and mortality. </span></span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW230442768 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW230442768 BCX0">Objective</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW230442768 BCX0">: </span></span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW230442768 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW230442768 BCX0">To investigate the effectiveness of Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) in terms of relapse prevention in the treatment of patients with opioid use disorders.</span> </span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW230442768 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW230442768 BCX0">Methods</span></span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW230442768 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW230442768 BCX0">: </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW230442768 BCX0">After the period of detoxification, an individualized treatment plan was made based on CBT. To assess the effectiveness of planned and executed CBT sessions</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW230442768 BCX0">,</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW230442768 BCX0"> pre and post assessment method was opted.</span> </span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW230442768 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW230442768 BCX0">Results</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW230442768 BCX0">:</span></span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW230442768 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW230442768 BCX0">Results specify that CBT worked successfully as relapse prevention in one-on-one sessions.</span></span> <span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW230442768 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW230442768 BCX0">CBT attested to be working in treating patients' lapses as well as relapses by increasing control on cravings and improving assertive behavior.</span> </span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW230442768 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW230442768 BCX0">Conclusion</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW230442768 BCX0">s:</span></span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW230442768 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW230442768 BCX0">T</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW230442768 BCX0">he conclusion can be drawn</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW230442768 BCX0"> that CBT </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW230442768 BCX0">is an effective </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW230442768 BCX0">methodology</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW230442768 BCX0">that</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW230442768 BCX0"> successfully deals</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW230442768 BCX0"> with patients' </span><span class="NormalTextRun ContextualSpellingAndGrammarErrorV2Themed SCXW230442768 BCX0">cravings</span><span class="NormalTextRun ContextualSpellingAndGrammarErrorV2Themed SCXW230442768 BCX0">, and</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW230442768 BCX0">develops </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW230442768 BCX0">assertive </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW230442768 BCX0">behavior</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW230442768 BCX0"> thereby preventing relapse. </span></span><span class="EOP SCXW230442768 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 THE THERAPIST (Journal of Therapies & Rehabilitation Sciences)