THE THERAPIST (Journal of Therapies & Rehabilitation Sciences) <p><strong>Title of Journal: </strong><strong>THE THERAPIST (ISSN Online: 2790-7414, Print: 2790-7406)</strong></p> <p><strong>Frequency: </strong><strong>BIANNUAL</strong></p> <p><strong>Affiliated with:</strong> Lahore Medical Research Center</p> <p><strong>Website:</strong> (<a href=""></a>)</p> <p><strong>Address:</strong> 746-A, Kashmir Block, Allama Iqbal Town, Lahore, Pakistan</p> <p><strong>Published By:</strong> CrossLinks International Publishers (CLIP), Lahore, Pakistan</p> <p><strong>Website:</strong> (<a href=""></a>)</p> <p><strong>Address:</strong> 590-Karim Block, Allama Iqbal Town, Lahore, Pakistan</p> <p>‘The Therapist’, abbreviated as ‘TT’ is an official journal of ‘Lahore Medical Research Center’ (LMRC), LLP. We are pleased to announce the launch of this journal of physical therapy and rehabilitation sciences as well as other therapies are also included within the scope such as stem cell therapy, speech therapy, psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, radiotherapy, dialectial behavior therapy, Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, Mentalization-based therapy, animal-assisted therapy, emotion focused therapy, family therapy, group therapy, mind-fulness-based therapy, virtual therapy, exposure therapy, interpersonal therapy, diet <br />therapy, virtual therapy, hydrotherapy, heat therapy are among the few. <br />Mission of this journal is to publish the studies in the above areas and relevant disciplines. These researches will be of great significance and may contribute to the awareness and understanding of the impact of different therapies <br />on human health improvement. To our knowledge this is the first journal with this unique scope. Studies related to these topic are most welcome from national and international authors. It will help all of us to work as global team to do something for the betterment of ailing humanity and share ideas for this noble cause .</p> CrossLinks International Publishers en-US THE THERAPIST (Journal of Therapies & Rehabilitation Sciences) 2790-7406 <p>This is an open-access journal and all the published articles / items are distributed under the terms of the <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. For comments <a href=""></a></p> Effectiveness of Physical Therapy in Rehabilitation of Muscular Dystrophy (MD) Patients <p>A category of hereditary genetic diseases known as muscular dystrophies (MD) gradually weaken the muscles, resulting in a growing degree of impairment. Since MD is a progressive disorder, it deteriorates over time. Before impacting the muscles more broadly, it frequently starts by affecting a specific group of muscles. Some forms of MD eventually impair the heart or the respiratory muscles, which makes the condition potentially fatal. Although there is no known treatment for MD, many of its symptoms can be managed with it. MD is brought on by modifications (mutations) in the genes in charge of a person's muscles' composition and functionality. The muscle fibres undergo alterations as a result of the mutations, which obstruct the muscles' capacity to work. This results in growing handicap over time. A person's parents frequently pass on the mutations to their offspring. Your doctor may recommend genetic testing and counselling if there is a family history of MD in order to assess your risk of contracting the illness or passing it on to a child and to go over your alternatives.</p> <p>There are numerous varieties of MD, and each has relatively unique symptoms. Many do not have an impact on life expectancy, and not all types result in severe disability. Among the more prevalent forms of MD are: One of the most prevalent and severe kinds is Duchenne MD, which often affects boys in their early years and has a life expectancy of only 20 to 30 years. Myotonic dystrophy is a type of MD that can appear at any age. Although it does not usually limit life expectancy, those with a severe form of the disease may do so. Facioscapulohumeral MD is a slow-progressing, mostly non-life-threatening kind of MD that can occur in both childhood and adults. Closely linked to Duchenne MD, Becker MD develops later in childhood, is less severe, and often has less of an impact on life expectancy. limb-girdle MD is a set of illnesses that typically appear in late adolescence or early adulthood, some varieties can advance swiftly and pose a serious threat to life, while others proceed more slowly. Oculopharyngeal MD is a kind of MD that often does not shorten life expectancy until a person is between the ages of 50 and 60. Emery-Dreifuss MD is a kind of MD that often manifests in childhood or early adulthood, most sufferers will live at least into middle age.</p> <p>The various kinds of MD can be diagnosed using a wide range of techniques. Depending on when symptoms first show, an illness may be diagnosed at a different age. Investigation of any symptoms, discussion of any family history of MD, physical examination, blood tests, electrical tests on the nerves and muscles, and a muscle biopsy (where a small tissue sample is extracted for testing) are all steps in the diagnosis process. Although there is no known cure for MD, there are numerous therapies that can help with any physical issues or limitations that may arise. These can include mobility assistance, physical therapy, and other physical aids, as well as support groups to help with the emotional and practical effects of MD, drugs - such as steroids to boost muscle strength, or ACE inhibitors and beta blockers to manage cardiac problems, or surgery - to correct postural deformities, such as scoliosis. Methods of mending the genetic alterations and harmed muscles linked to MD are the subject of recent research.</p> Muhammad Akram Tariq Copyright (c) 2022 THE THERAPIST (Journal of Therapies & Rehabilitation Sciences) 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 01 01 10.54393/tt.v3i1.41 Roll of Stem Cell Therapy in Osteoarthritis <p>Osteoarthritis (OA) is by far the most prevalent type of degenerative joint disease. It is a painful, long-lasting disorder that can affect any synovial joint. Over the future decades, diseases would impose a significant socioeconomic burden on society as a result of an ageing population and rising disease prevalence [1]. The fact that there are few OA therapy choices complicates this situation. Since neither pharmacological nor non-operative treatments have shown to be effective in slowing or stopping the progression of disease, treatment is limited to managing aggravating variables over the long term and managing pain. When mechanical deformity is evident, surgical alternatives such as osteotomies are available to improve alignment and reduce the risk of OA; however, these operations are of limited effect once severe degenerative changes have occurred [2]. Despite improvements in these techniques, they cannot be used to treat more severe joint degeneration brought on by OA. The hunt for disease-modifying remedies goes on in the lack of successful tactics.</p> <p>For degenerative musculoskeletal disorders like OA, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been recommended as the best restorative cellular treatment. These cells can quickly multiply and differentiate into musculoskeletal lineages like bone and cartilage. They can be found in a range of tissues [3]. A large body of research has also shown that these cells control crucial immunologic processes by modifying the local inflammatory response. Together, these elements lend credence to MSCs' potential to prevent degenerative joint disease. Due to the fact that this cytotype can be found in a wide variety of tissues, research has concentrated on identifying the best source for MSC generation [4]. Thus, MSC-based therapeutic approaches can be employed to treat OA as a standard treatment plan in near future</p> Kashifa Eshan Copyright (c) 2022 THE THERAPIST (Journal of Therapies & Rehabilitation Sciences) 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 02 02 10.54393/tt.v3i1.29 Forward Head Posture in Young Adults: A Systematic Review <p>A recent study shows that almost 78% of population have its neck in working position within 24 hours causing continuous stress on neck and shoulders which is forcing the neck in anterior or forward head posture. This may lead to upper back tightness and muscle spasm causing nagging to sharp pain. Hence, cervical pain and neck pain getting more attention. This study is designed to narratively review the prevalence of forward head posture in young adults <strong>Methods:</strong> A structured search on literature was done through various electronic and print data bases such as: Pubmed, cinhal, google scholar, science direct, cochrane library and scopus. Those studies were included in which age ranged from 20 to 45 years. Young adults from any profession were included. Those studies were excluded in which forward head posture was reported due to any systemic issue <strong>Results:</strong> A total of 120 studies had gone through in which 65 studies were short listed and on further review only 4 studies were included as they fit in proper methodology and hence, reviewed and reported. Studies reported a considerable variation in the prevalence with the clear greater incidence <strong>Conclusions:</strong> Forward head posture is a commonly seen disorder among young adults. Investigations and interventions in time along with knowledge of postural correction can deal with this raising problem.</p> Ayesha Arooj Aamir Aziz Fariha Khalid Muhammad Hussain Iqbal Huda Binte Ashfaq Copyright (c) 2022 THE THERAPIST (Journal of Therapies & Rehabilitation Sciences) 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 32 35 10.54393/tt.v3i1.38 Evaluation of the Causes of Abdominal Right Upper Quadrant Pain using Ultrasound <p>The outermost upper quadrant at the right side of the abdomen is right upper quadrant, also acknowledged as epigastrium. <strong>Objective:</strong> To evaluate of the causes of abdominal right upper quadrant pain using ultrasound. <strong>Methods:</strong> This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted at private medical setup of Gujranwala, Pakistan from January 2022 to March 2022. The information required for this study was collected by using ultrasound equipment TOSHIBA XARIO 100 having probe frequency of 3.5Hz. A sample size of 70 patients was considered having abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant. The data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. <strong>Results: </strong>Highest frequency of RUQ pain was shown in more than 45 years in females 47 (67.1%). The most common diagnosis of patients with RUQ pain was fatty liver disease 27 (38.6%) followed by Cholelithiasis 11(15.7%). <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Ultrasound is the gold standard modality for diagnosing abdominal organs diseases as it is a cheap, non-invasive and fast modality. Most common diseases diagnosing in patients with RUQ pain is fatty liver (38.6%) in old females (67.1 %).</p> Aiman Aftab Ahmed Akash John Abid Ali M. Abdullah Mehar Syeda Tatheer Fatima Rizvi Copyright (c) 2022 THE THERAPIST (Journal of Therapies & Rehabilitation Sciences) 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 03 06 10.54393/tt.v3i1.30 Measurement of Uterus Sizes Of Multiparous Women using Ultrasound <p>Human uterus is a pear-shaped fibromuscular organ. The measurements of a typical uterus are 7.6x4. 5x3cm. The uterus grows slowly during fetal life until the end of the first trimester when it grows at a higher rate due to increased maternal oestrogen production. As a result of this continuation of the maternal oestrogen the uterus shrinks immediately after delivery. <strong>Objective: </strong>To evaluate uterus size in multiparous women using ultrasound. <strong>Methods:</strong> It was a cross-sectional study carried out at private sector hospital of Gujrat over 4 months period from December 2021 to March 2022. The sample size was 41 calculated via a convenient sampling approach from previously published studies. Multiparous women following ultrasound examination during the study period were included after receiving informed consent. The patients’ demographic statistics were collected on a specially designed data collecting sheet. The data was analyzed using the SSPS V20 program. <strong>Results: </strong>The average length was 7.9±1.15, width was 4.3±0.77, and thickness 3.5±0.66. There was no significant correlation between uterine size (length, width, thickness) and many parities because the value in the "Sig. (2-tailed)" is 0.607, 0.640, and 0.983 respectively which is more than 0.05.<strong>Conclusion:</strong> The current study found no correlation between the number of parities and the length, width, and thickness diameters of the uterus.</p> Nayab Fatima Akash John Abid Ali Arshia Amir Maryam Mubbarka Copyright (c) 2022 THE THERAPIST (Journal of Therapies & Rehabilitation Sciences) 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 07 10 10.54393/tt.v3i1.33 Evaluation of Hydrocephalus and its Types on Computed Tomography <p>Hydrocephalus is the buildup of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain. The extra fluid exerts pressure on the brain. It can be due to genetic issues, Head trauma, infection, stroke, tumors, and bleeding in the brain. <strong>Objective: </strong>To evaluate hydrocephalus and its type on Computed Tomography. <strong>Methods: </strong>The study was conducted in a Govt sector tertiary care hospital of tehsil Kharian,&nbsp; district Gujrat, Pakistan. The data was collected from December 2021&nbsp;to March 2022 using convenient sampling technique. A sample size of 70 patients was considered as per convenience. The patients of hydrocephalus who undergo brain scan plain were included. &nbsp;The data was collected after informed consent. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. <strong>Results: </strong>This study revealed that females 40(57.1%) were more likely to have hydrocephalus than males 30(42.9%). The common age group having hydrocephalus was 1-10years 23(32.9%). The most frequent finding evaluated was non-communicating hydrocephalus 36(51.4%). The most common effects in hydrocephalus was congenital dilatation of the third ventricle and two lateral ventricles 40(57.1%). <strong>Conclusion:</strong> In conclusion, CT is the best modality for diagnosing hydrocephalus in children as well as in elders. CT is a useful imaging method for visualizing congenital&nbsp;hydrocephalus.</p> Amina Sharif Bhatti Akash John Abid Ali Urwa Nasir Nayyar Ashfaq Mahnoor Akram Copyright (c) 2022 THE THERAPIST (Journal of Therapies & Rehabilitation Sciences) 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 11 14 10.54393/tt.v3i1.34 Prevalence of Trigger Finger among Instrumental Musicians of Lahore, Pakistan <p>Trigger finger is also known as stenosing tenosynovitis. It is a troublesome anomaly that is experienced by most of the musicians and is characterized by catching, popping and locking of the affected finger/fingers. The causes of this anomaly are repetitive hand movements and holding heavy musical instruments. <strong>Objective:</strong> the basic aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of trigger finger in instrumental musicians. <strong>Methods:</strong> A cross sectional study design and convenient sampling technique was used to collect the data. A data of 320 musicians was collected through a self-administered questionnaire, who were lying in the inclusion criteria of the study.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In this study the results concluded that the frequency of trigger finger in instrumental musicians is 2.2%. Total 320 instrumental musicians participated in the study and out of it 292 (91.3%) were male and 28 (8.8%) were female. Minimum age was 20 and maximum age was 59 years. 283 (88.4%) were in the age range from 20-29, 25 (7.8%) participants were in the age range of 30-39 years, 10 (3.1%) participants were in the range of 40-49 years and 2 (0-6%) participants were in the range of 50-59 years. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The present study concluded that frequency of trigger finger in musicians was very low as 2.2%. The study also determined that occurrence of trigger finger in musicians relies on repetitive hand movements and holding heavy musical instruments.</p> Fareeha Amjad Mahzaib Asif Alishba Mustansar Billah Copyright (c) 2022 THE THERAPIST (Journal of Therapies & Rehabilitation Sciences) 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 15 18 10.54393/tt.v3i1.35 Comparison of Effectiveness of Muscle energy Technique with Strain Counter Strain Technique on the Patients of Non-Specific Neck Pain <p>Non-specific neck pain is a condition which is diagnosed through symptoms when serious and objective cervical spinal pathology (e.g., trauma, malignancy, radiculopathy, etc.) has been ruled out. Many studies have done previously for both techniques, muscle energy technique and strain-counter strain technique, for treatment of patients with non-specific neck pain <strong>Objective: </strong>To compare the effectiveness of Muscle Energy Technique with Strain Counter- Strain Technique in patients with non-specific neck pain <strong>Methods: </strong>Single blinded randomized clinical trial was conducted. The assessor was blinded from the allocation in the groups. Forty Patients were included in the study divided into two groups; each group received one technique. They were followed for Seven sessions. Questionnaire including visual analogue scale, NDI were used to collect pre-treatment and post- treatment data. Data was analyzed by using SPSS ver. 21. <em>Independent sample t test</em> was applied to compare means of patients <strong>Results: </strong>Neck flexion of the Patients pretreatment Mean Group 1:24.6500, Group2:23.0500. Neck Flexion of the patient after treatment Mean Group 1(SCS) 32.0500 Group 2(MET) 40.0000 Neck Extension of the Patient pretreatment Mean Group 1: 33.8500 Group 2:&nbsp; 30.6500. Neck extension of the patients. Post treatment Mean SCS 41.5000 MET53. 2500.The given results and detailed results given in the table shows that both techniques are improving ROM, but MET are more effective than SCS. <em>p value is 0.001</em> which is significant <strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study concluded that Muscle Energy Technique is better in reducing pain as compared to Strain Counter Strain Technique</p> Taimoor Ameer Noman Ghaffar Idrees Ahmed Zahoor Arif Ali Rana Irfan Ahmad Humaira Azam Copyright (c) 2022 THE THERAPIST (Journal of Therapies & Rehabilitation Sciences) 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 19 23 10.54393/tt.v3i1.36 Prevalence of Urinary Incontinence among married females in Sialkot Pakistan <p>Impairment in the pelvic floor muscles and nerves that control the continence of urine can occur due to various conditions in the women, which may affect the lifestyle of women. <strong>Objective: </strong>To find the prevalence of Urinary Incontinence in married females in Sialkot. <strong>Methods</strong>: This observational study was conducted at public and private settings of Sialkot in six months after ethical approval. A sample of 100 married females was targeted through non-probability convenient sampling. ICIQ-UI (International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire) short form questionnaire was used to collect the data. Middle aged women (35-55Years) were included, while unmarried females, pregnant females, females with any history of spinal cord injury and other comorbid conditions were excluded. Results are expressed as frequencies and percentages using IBM Software SPSS Version 20.0. <strong>Results</strong>: Mean age± SD of the participants was 38.4±6.615 years. While calculating the amount of urine leaking; 16% (n=16) had none, 57% (n=57) had a small amount, 25% (n=25) had a moderate amount and 2% (n=2) had a large amount. Similarly, interference with everyday life due to leaking urine was found in 79% (n=79) mild to moderate, 16% (n=16) not at all interferes and 5% (n=5) were greatly interfered. Mean ICIQ-UI score± SD was 9.53±0.36 ranging from 0-11. Most of the women reported urine leakage in a small amount, once a day effecting mild to moderately their daily livings usually due to coughing, sneezing or physical activity <strong>Conclusions</strong>: Most of the females have episodic urinary incontinence mostly associated with cough, sneeze and physical activity.</p> Misbah Amanat Ali Laiba Naeem Roha Asif Komal Imran Momna Noor Mahrukh Hafeez Copyright (c) 2022 THE THERAPIST (Journal of Therapies & Rehabilitation Sciences) 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 24 27 10.54393/tt.v3i1.37 Quality of Life in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis <p>Osteoarthritis is a joint degenerative disease. Old age is the usual cause of knee osteoarthritis. Knee osteoarthritis affects quality of life (physical, social and psychological) of patient and can cause other health related problems. Most people who undergo knee osteoarthritis have serious consequences, which affect their quality of life.<strong> Objective: </strong>The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of life in patient by knee osteoarthritis.<strong> Methods: </strong>This was a cross sectional study that was conducted in Lahore, Pakistan in 2017. The sample size of 192 was taken with the age range of 30 to 70 years. SF-36 V2 extracted questionnaire was used to find out the quality of life in patients by knee osteoarthritis. People were asked about the effect of knee osteoarthritis on their physical, social and psychological health and result was calculated.<strong> Results: </strong>Quality of life was seen in 192 individuals having knee osteoarthritis with mean age of 47.66 years (range from 30 to 70). A strong impact of osteoarthritis was found on quality of life of such patients. Physical health limitation was found to be 59.9% and psychological impact was 49.5%.<strong> Conclusion:</strong> It was concluded that people with knee osteoarthritis had poor quality of life. Their physical, social and psychological health was compromised to a healthy individual.</p> Tania Asif Arif Ali Rana Idrees Ahmed Zahoor Noman Ghaffar Irfan Ahmad Qasim Idrees Copyright (c) 2022 THE THERAPIST (Journal of Therapies & Rehabilitation Sciences) 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 28 31 10.54393/tt.v3i1.39