Causes, Precautions and Management of Risk Factors Associated with Sports Injuries

Risk Factors Associated with Sports Injuries


  • Alamgir Khan Department of Sports Sciences and Physical Education, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Jamil Department of Sports Sciences and Physical Education, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Shireen Butti Department of Collage Education, Govt of Sindh, Pakistan
  • Iftikhar Ahmad Departments of Physical Education, Health and Physical Education, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan
  • Habib Ullah Department of Sports Sciences and Physical Education, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan
  • Arsalan Khan Department of Sports Sciences and Physical Education, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan
  • . Imtiaz Department of Sports Sciences and Physical Education, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan



Sports Injuries, Risk Factors, Management


Sports injuries are considered a global health problem that needs a special focus on public health to minimize the risk factors of sports injuries [1]. Sports Injuries refer to injuries commonly occurring during sports or exercise, but they are not only confined to sports. It can also appear in our routine life events. Suppose a factory worker can get tennis elbow injuries, and Painter gets shoulder injuries. Likewise, gardeners develop tendinitis even though they may not participate in sports [2]. The common sports injuries are sprains, strains, swollen muscles, shin splints, rotator cuff injuries, knee injuries, fractures, and dislocations. Based on nature, we can divide it into two types, i.e. intrinsic injuries and extrinsic injuries. Intrinsic injuries are those injuries which take place inside the body, while those injuries that take place outside the body are called outside injuries. Sports Injuries can occur in any part of the body, such as bones, joints, muscles, tendons, ligaments and cartilage [3]. Sports injuries may be categorized as chronic or acute sports injuries. Chronic or overuse injuries develop in sports where an athlete needs long-term repetitive motion, like long-distance running, cycling and swimming [4]. Chronic sports injuries include arthritis, tendonitis, tennis elbow, repetitive strain injury (RSI) and runner's knee [5]. Likewise, acute sports injuries consist of those injuries which happen suddenly. Wrist fractures. Ankle sprains. Shoulder dislocations are the best examples of acute sports injuries [5, 6]. In other words, those injuries which take place suddenly and need a short period of recovery are term as acute sports injuries, such as strain, sprain, dislocation and muscle aches etc. Similarly, those injuries that develop gradually and need more time for recovery are called chronic injuries [7]. Poor training, anatomical problems, muscle weakness, tendons, exercising ligaments, and unsafe environments are all causative factors of sports injuries [8]. In association with factors, sports injuries are usually instigated by overuse, direct impact, or the application of force greater than the body part can structurally withstand [9]. The main causes of injuries during sports are; lack of proper training, overtraining, long-term playing the same sports, playing on hard surfaces, and improper shoes and sports kits [2]. As a serious health concern, learning about preventive measures is important for athletes, coaches, and managers [10]. Preventive measures of sports injuries include; physical fitness, awareness about skills and techniques, and warm and cool down [11-13]. Due to injuries, a sportsman completely loses their performance. In addition, as a result of injuries, a sportsman feels soreness, swelling, muscular weakness, fatigue and pain. Along with physical problems, many psychological issues, such as fear, tension, lack of focus, and poor self-confidence, are also linked with sports injuries [14-18]. Different first aid techniques can help manage the severe effects of sports injuries, such as injury prevention, injury identification and treatment, and injury rehabilitation [19, 20]. Likewise, developing a fitness plan comprised of cardiovascular, strength and flexibility exercises, warm-up and cool down, staying hydrated, using proper equipment, etc. also used to manage sports injuries [21, 22]. There are five basic steps for preventing sports injuries among children. These preventive measures include wearing protective gear, i.e. helmets, protective pads, and other gear, warm up and cooling down, knowing the rules of the game, watch out for others and don't play when injured [22].


Timpka T, Ekstrand J, Svanström L. From sports injury prevention to safety promotion in sports. Sports Medicine. 2006 Sep; 36: 733-45. doi: 10.2165/00007256-200636090-00002.

Bridges SL. National institute of arthritis and musculoskeletal and skin diseases. Arthritis Research & Therapy. 2000 Dec; 2(1): 1-3. doi: 10.1186/ar-2000-2-webreport0003.

Cleveland Clinic (ND). Sports Injuries. [Last Cited: 3rd Aug 2023]. Available at:

Bahr R and Holme I. Risk factors for sports injuries—a methodological approach. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2003 Oct; 37(5): 384-92. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.37.5.384.

Dogra A. Sports Medicine. First Digital Edition. Friends Publications (India); 2021 May.

Steffen K, Andersen TE, Krosshaug T, van Mechelen W, Myklebust G, Verhagen EA, et al. ECSS Position Statement 2009: Prevention of acute sports injuries. European Journal of Sport Science. 2010 Jul; 10(4): 223-6. doi: 10.1080/17461390903585173.

Bahr R and Mæhlum S. Clinical guide to sports injuries. Human Kinetics; 2004.

Patil PJ, Thakare GV, Patil SP. Assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practices in coaches regarding musculoskeletal sport injuries and sports safety measure use among sports participants. Indian Journal of Clinical Anatomy and Physiology. 2017 Jan; 4(1): 63-7.

Hess GP, Cappiello WL, Poole RM, Hunter SC. Prevention and treatment of overuse tendon injuries. Sports Medicine. 1989 Dec; 8: 371-84. doi: 10.2165/00007256-198908060-00005.

Van Tiggelen D, Wickes S, Stevens V, Roosen P, Witvrouw E. Effective prevention of sports injuries: a model integrating efficacy, efficiency, compliance and risk-taking behaviour. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2008 Aug; 42(8): 648-52. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2008.046441.

Chalmers DJ. Injury prevention in sport: not yet part of the game? Injury prevention. 2002 Dec; 8(suppl 4): iv22-5. doi: 10.1136/ip.8.suppl_4.iv22.

Gotlin R. Sports injuries guidebook. Human Kinetics; 2007 Dec.

Hergenroeder AC. Prevention of sports injuries. Pediatrics. 1998 Jun; 101(6): 1057-63. doi: 10.1542/peds.101.6.1057.

McGrath N. Supporting the student-athlete's return to the classroom after a sport-related concussion. Journal of Athletic Training. 2010 Sep; 45(5): 492-8. doi: 10.4085/1062-6050-45.5.492.

Best TM. Soft-tissue injuries and muscle tears. Clinics in Sports Medicine. 1997 Jul; 16(3): 419-34. doi: 10.1016/S0278-5919(05)70033-8.

Joyce D, Lewindon D, editors. Sports injury prevention and rehabilitation: integrating medicine and science for performance solutions. Routledge; 2015 Dec. doi: 10.4324/9780203066485.

Hardy L. Psychological stress, performance, and injury in sport. British Medical Bulletin. 1992 Jan; 48(3): 615-29. doi: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.bmb.a072567.

Forsdyke D, Smith A, Jones M, Gledhill A. Psychosocial factors associated with outcomes of sports injury rehabilitation in competitive athletes: a mixed studies systematic review. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2016 May; 50(9): 537-44. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2015-094850.

Clanton TO and Coupe KJ. Hamstring strains in athletes: diagnosis and treatment. JAAOS-Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. 1998 Jul; 6(4): 237-48. doi: 10.5435/00124635-199807000-00005.

Nye NS, Grubic T, Kim M, O'Connor F, Deuster PA. Universal Training Precautions: A Review of Evidence and Recommendations for Prevention of Exercise-Related Injury, Illness, and Death in Warfighters and Athletes. Journal of Athletic Training. 2023 Mar; 58(3): 232-43. doi: 10.4085/1062-6050-0400.21.

Berkes I, Kynsburg Á, Pánics G. Prevention of football injuries. Football Traumatology: Current Concepts: from Prevention to Treatment. Springer, Milano. 2006: 53-65. doi: 10.1007/88-470-0419-5_6. doi: 10.1007/88-470-0419-5_6.

Kid Health. 5 ways to avoid sports injuries. 2021. [Last Cited: 2nd Dec 2021]. Available at:



DOI: 10.54393/tt.v4i03.143
Published: 2023-09-30

How to Cite

Khan, A., Jamil, M. ., Butti, S., Ahmad, I., Ullah, H., Khan, A., & Imtiaz, . (2023). Causes, Precautions and Management of Risk Factors Associated with Sports Injuries: Risk Factors Associated with Sports Injuries . THE THERAPIST (Journal of Therapies &Amp; Rehabilitation Sciences), 4(03), 56–58.