Effect of Ergonomic Practices on Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS) symptoms among undergraduate and postgraduate IT students of University of Chakwal

Effect of Ergonomic Practices on CVS symptoms


  • Shajeea Jabeen Munawwar Memorial Hospital & College of Optometry, Chakwal, Pakistan
  • Mehreen Khalid Munawwar Memorial Hospital & College of Optometry, Chakwal, Pakistan
  • Rizwana Shahid Department of Community Medicine, Rawalpindi, Medical University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
  • Iqra Khalil Munawwar Memorial Hospital & College of Optometry, Chakwal, Pakistan
  • Sajjad Haider Munawwar Memorial Hospital & College of Optometry, Chakwal, Pakistan
  • Ushana Jamil Ibadat International University, Islamabad, Pakistan




Ergonomic Practices, Computer Vision Syndrome, IT Students, Dryness of Eyes, Photophobia


Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS) is common nowadays among students due to constant working on computer. In addition to various visual and ocular disorders, there is also periodic rise in their musculoskeletal problems. Objective: To determine the effect of visual ergonomics on CVS among IT university students of Chakwal. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was done in IT department of the University of Chakwal from October-December 2021. About 65 undergraduate and postgraduate IT students studying in the University of Chakwal were enrolled through consecutive sampling. Students using computers and having symptoms of Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS), refractive error and convergence insufficiency were included. The data were gathered for visual effects in response to different ergonomics and was analysed by SPSS 25.0 and Microsoft Excel 2016. P ≤0.05 was taken as significant. Results: Of the 65 students, most (72.3%) were undergraduate students. Almost 55.4% complained of severe neck / shoulder pain and dryness of eyes. 39% used to do computer work for 1-4 hours / day. Students working for 1-4 hours at home had less blinking and watering of eyes in addition to eyestrain (p< 0.05). There was significant association of mild headache (p<0.02) and minimal photophobia (p<0.05) with 1-4 hours computer work at home. Taking break up to 1 hour had significant association with mildness of eye burning, crossing and redness (p<0.05). Conclusions: IT students had moderate to severe dryness of eyes, neck and shoulder pain. Not spending more than four consecutive hours on computer work and taking at least one hour break is imperative to avoid severe symptoms


Lema AK and Anbesu EW. Computer vision syndrome and its determinants: A systematic review and meta-analysis. SAGE Open Medicine. 2022 Dec; 10: 20503121221142402. doi: 10.1177%2F20503121221142402.

Rosenfield, M. Computer vision syndrome (aka digital eye strain). Optometry in Practice. 2016 Feb; 17(1): 1–10. doi: 10.3109/02713683.2015.1031352.

Chawla A, Lim TC, Shikhare SN, Munk PL, Peh WCG. Computer vision syndrome: Darkness under the shadow of light. Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal. 2019 Feb; 70(1): 5–9. doi: 10.1016/j.carj.2018.10.005.

Iqbal M, Elzembely H, El-Massry A, Elgharib M, Assaf A, Ibrahim O, et al. Computer vision syndrome prevalence and ocular sequelae among medical students a university-wide study on a marginalized visual security issue. Open Ophthalmology Journal. 2021 Apr; 15(1): 156–70. doi: 10.2174/1874364102115010156.

Mastrota, KM. As seen on TV: Doing harm, not help, to the ocular surface. Optometry Times Journal. 2019 Sep; 11(9): 30–2.

Singh H, Tigga MJ, Laad S, Khan N. Prevention of ocular morbidity among medical students by prevalence assessment of asthenopia and its risk factors. Journal of Evidence Based Medicine and Healthcare. 2016 Feb; 3(15): 532–6. doi: 10.18410/jebmh/2016/122.

Anbesu, EW and Lema AK. Prevalence of computer vision syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Scientific Reports. 2023 Jan; 13: 1801. doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-28750-6.

Singh S, McGuinness MB, Anderson AJ, BOptom LED, Interventions for the management of computer vision syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Ophthalmology. 2022 Oct; 129(10): 1192-215. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2022.05.009.

Hwang Y, Shin D, Eun J, Suh B, Lee J. Design guidelines of a computer-based intervention for computer vision syndrome: Focus group study and real-world deployment. Journal of Medical Internet Research. 2021 Mar; 23(3): e22099. doi: 10.2196/22099.

Lee S, De Barros FC, De Castro CSM, De Oliveira Sato T. Effect of an ergonomic intervention involving workstation adjustments on musculoskeletal pain in office workers- a randomized controlled clinical trial. Indian Health. 2021 Mar; 59(2): 78-85. doi: 10.2486/indhealth.2020-0188.

Shah M and Saboor A. Computer Vision Syndrome: Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors among Computer-Using Bank Workers in Pakistan. Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology. 2022 Oct; 52(5): 295-301. doi: 10.4274/tjo.galenos.2021.08838.

Cardoso B, Mateus C, Magalhaes R, Rodrigues MA. Ergonomic intervention program for office workers: a case study about its effect in computer vision syndrome and musculoskeletal discomfort. Ergonomics. 2023 Nov; 1-12. doi: 10.1080/00140139.2023.2288543.

OCL Vision. The effects of computer use on eye health and vision. 2017. [Last cited: 13th Jan 2023]. Available at: https://www.oclvision.com/blog/computer-use-on-eye-health/.

Bali J, Neeraj N, Bali RT. Computer vision syndrome: A review. Journal of Clinical Ophthalmology and Research. 2014 Jan; 2(1): 61-8. doi: 10.4103/2320-3897.122661.

American Optometric Association. Computer Vision Syndrome. 2011. [Last cited: 13th Jan 2023]. Available at: https://www.aoa.org/healthy-eyes/eye-and-vision-conditions/computer-vision-syndrome?sso=y.

Bahkir FA and Grandee SS. Impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on digital device-related ocular health. Indian Journal of Ophthalmology. 2020 Nov; 68(11): 2378–83. doi: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_2306_20.

Lorusso A, Bruno S, L'Abbate N. Musculoskeletal disorders among university student computer users. La Medicina del Lavoro. 2009 Jan; 100(1): 29-34.

Zenbaba D, Sahiledengle B, Bonsa M, Tekalegn Y, Azanaw J, Kumar Chattu V. Prevalence of Computer Vision Syndrome and Associated Factors among Instructors in Ethiopian Universities: A Web-Based Cross-Sectional Study. The Scientific World Journal. 2021 Oct; 2021: 3384332. doi: 10.1155/2021/3384332.

Al-Mohtaseb Z, Schachter S, Shen Lee B, Garlich J, Trattler W. The Relationship between Dry Eye Disease and Digital Screen Use. Clinical Ophthalmology. 2021 Sep; 15: 3811-20. doi: 10.2147/FOPTH.S321591.

Wang C, Joltikov KA, Kravets S, Edward DP. Computer Vision Syndrome in Undergraduate and Medical Students during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Clinical Ophthalmology. 2023 Apr; 17: 1087-96. doi: 10.2147/OPTH.S405249.

Li R, Ying B, Qian Y, Chen D, Li X, Zhu H, et al. Prevalence of Self-Reported Symptoms of Computer Vision Syndrome and Associated Risk Factors among School Students in China during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Ophthalmic Epidemiology. 2022 Aug; 29(4): 363-73. doi: 10.1080/09286586.2021.1963786.

Charpe NA and Kaushik V. Computer vision syndrome (CVS): Recognition and control in software professionals. Journal of Human Ecology. 2009 Oct; 28(1): 67–9. doi: 10.1080/09709274.2009.11906219.

Anshel JR. Visual ergonomics in the workplace. American Association of Occupational Health Nurses 2007 Oct; 55(10): 414-20. doi: 10.1177/216507990705501004.

Chu SY, Tsai YH, Xiao SH, Huang SJ, Yang CC. Quality of return to work in patients with mild traumatic brain injury: a prospective investigation of associations among post-concussion symptoms, neuropsychological functions, working status and stability. Brain Injury. 2017 Sep; 31(12): 1674-82. doi: 10.1080/02699052.2017.1332783.



DOI: 10.54393/tt.v4i04.183
Published: 2023-12-31

How to Cite

Jabeen, S., Khalid, M., Shahid, R., Khalil, I., Haider, S., & Jamil, U. (2023). Effect of Ergonomic Practices on Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS) symptoms among undergraduate and postgraduate IT students of University of Chakwal: Effect of Ergonomic Practices on CVS symptoms. THE THERAPIST (Journal of Therapies &Amp; Rehabilitation Sciences), 4(04), 40–47. https://doi.org/10.54393/tt.v4i04.183