Prevalence of Hamstring Tightness Among Healthcare Workers

Hamstring Tightness among Healthcare Workers


  • Komal Jamil Bahria University Health Sciences Karachi, Pakistan
  • Shawn Robinson South Tyneside and Sunderland NHS Foundation Trust, United Kingdom
  • Sara Amir Abro Liaquat National School of Physiotherapy Karachi, Pakistan
  • Shaista Hayat Shaheed Benazir Bhutto Dewan University, Karachi, Pakistan
  • Kashmala Zia Northwest Institute of Health Sciences, Peshawar, Pakistan
  • Obaida Arzoo Khyber Medical University, Peshawar, Pakistan
  • Fatima Zaidi Sindh Government Hospital New Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan
  • Shaheryar Ashraf College of Rehabiliation Sciences, Ziauddin Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan



Hamstring, Body Mass Index, Healthcare Workers, Straight Leg Raise, Active Knee Extension


Hamstring tightness is the incapability of the muscle to move more than 160 degrees of extension of the knee while 90 degrees is flexion of the hip is called tightness of the hamstring. Mostly seen that the higher ratio of hamstring tightness occurs in the right lower limb. Objective: To determine the prevalence of hamstring tightness among healthcare workers. Methods: It was a cross-sectional study conducted on hamstring tightness among healthcare workers in Karachi from July 2023 to Jan 2024. The sample size of the study was 643 healthcare workers. The convenient sampling techniques was used. For the evaluation: SLR(Straight leg raise) and AKE(Active knee extension) were used. The data were analyzed through the SPSS version 23.0. Results: A total number of 643 healthcare professionals of both genders were recruited from hospitals in Karachi. There were 197 (30.63%) physical therapists who were found to be the tightness of the hamstring muscle. The ranges of body mass index among healthcare workers are higher in the underweight BMI category. The severity of hamstring muscle tightness in males was observed higher between 31 to 45 degrees in the right lower limb as compared to the left. The severity of hamstring muscle tightness in females was observed higher between 31 to 45 degrees in the right lower limb as compared to the left. Conclusions: The prevalence of hamstring was found in all healthcare workers of research but the highest percentage was found in physical therapists as compared to other professions. 


Bhimani R, Gaugler JE, Felts J. Consensus definition of muscle tightness from multidisciplinary perspectives. Nursing Research. 2020 Mar; 69(2): 109-15. doi: 10.1097/NNR.0000000000000404.

Huygaerts S, Cos F, Cohen DD, Calleja-González J, Guitart M, Blazevich AJ Mechanisms of hamstring strain injury: interactions between fatigue, muscle activation and function. Sports. 2020 May; 8(5): 65. doi: 10.3390/sports8050065.

Danielsson A, Horvath A, Senorski C, Alentorn-Geli E, Garrett WE, Cugat R, The mechanism of hamstring injuries–a systematic review. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2020 Dec; 21: 1-21. doi: 10.1186/s12891-020-03658-8.

Kachanathu SJ, AlAbdulwahab SS, Hafez AR, Aldaihan MM, Nuhmani S, Rizvi MR. A randomised controlled trial between hamstring muscle tightness and lumbar lordotic angle. Comparative Exercise Physiology. 2022 Jun; 18(3): 179-83. doi: 10.3920/CEP220001.

Putra DP, Sari GM, Utomo DN. Different Effect of Static Stretching and Neurodynamic Technique in Increasing Hamstring Flexibility on Hamstring Tightness. Different Effect of Static Stretching and Neurodynamic Technique in Increasing Hamstring Flexibility on Hamstring Tightness. 2021 Oct; 86(1): 6. doi: 10.47119/IJRP1008611020212332.

Mukkamala N, Parmar L, Kumar P. Musculoskeletal disorders in tyre manufacturing workers. Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2021 Jul; 25(3): 133-7. doi: 0.4103/ijoem.IJOEM_177_20.

Smith MD, Vicenzino B, Brown WJ, Gilson ND, Gane EM, Johnston V. Symptom characteristics in office workers using standing workstations: A cross-sectional study. Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy. 2022 Mar; 26(2): 100393. doi: 10.1016/j.bjpt.2022.100393.

Chaphekar A, Somarajan S, Naik M, Kothiya D, Nakrani J, Trivedi S, Prevalence of Hamstrings Tightness Using Active Knee Extension Test among Diamond Assorters. Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development. 2021 Mar; 12(2): 7-11. doi: 10.37506/ijphrd.v12i2.14087.

Samani M, Ghaffarinejad F, Abolahrari-Shirazi S, Khodadadi T, Roshan F. Prevalence and sensitivity of trigger points in lumbo-pelvic-hip muscles in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies. 2020 Jan; 24(1): 126-30. doi: 10.1016/j.jbmt.2019.10.012.

Ekstrand J, Ueblacker P, Van Zoest W, Verheijen R, Vanhecke B, van Wijk M, Bengtsson H. Risk factors for hamstring muscle injury in male elite football: medical expert experience and conclusions from 15 European Champions League clubs. BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine. 2023 Jan; 9(1): e001461. doi: 10.1136/bmjsem-2022-001461.

Humayun K, Siddiqi D, Ahmad I, Ajmal S, Khan AS, Maqsood H, Frequency of Iliotibial Band Tightness and Its Association with Anterior Knee Pain in Healthcare Workers. American Journal of Health, Medicine and Nursing Practice. 2023 Oct; 9(2): 32-41. doi: 10.47672/ajhmn.1599.

Sannasi R, Rajashekar A, Hegde NS. Association of patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) with quadratus lumborum and lower limb muscle tightness a cross-sectional study. Journal of Orthopaedics. 2023 Aug; 42: 1-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jor.2023.06.007.

Afonso J, Olivares-Jabalera J, Fernandes RJ, Clemente FM, Rocha-Rodrigues S, Claudino JG, et al. Effectiveness of conservative interventions after acute hamstrings injuries in athletes: A living systematic review. Sports Medicine. 2023 Mar; 53(3): 615-35. doi: 10.1007/s40279-022-01783-z.

Allam NM, Eladl HM, Elruwaili LT, Elruwaili LF, Elbenya TJ, Elanzi EM, Correlation between hamstring muscle tightness and incidence of low back pain in female students at Jouf University, Saudi Arabia. European Review for Medical & Pharmacological Sciences. 2022 Nov; 26(21).

Khalil E, Tariq R, Arsalan HM, Khalid A, Ayaz S, Javed H. Prevalence of hamstrings tightness and its impact on lower extremity function in asymptomatic individuals with prolonged standing hours. International Journal of Natural Medicine and Health Sciences. 2022 Sep;1(4). doi: 10.52461/ijnms.v1i4.1040.

Arner JW, McClincy MP, Bradley JP. Hamstring injuries in athletes: evidence-based treatment. JAAOS-Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. 2019 Dec; 27(23): 868-77. doi: 10.5435/JAAOS-D-18-00741.

Koli BK and Anap DB. Prevalence and severity of hamstring tightness among college student: A cross sectional study. International Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Research. 2018 Apr: 65-8. doi: 10.5455/ijcbr.2018.42.14

Mbada CE, Egwu OM, Obagade MA, Oghumu SN, Oke IK, Idowu AO, Reference values for hamstring and quadriceps strengths in apparently healthy young individuals. Journal of Physical Education & Health. 2021 Dec; 10(17): 5-13.

Batool F, Kiran Q, Mubashar H, Gull M, Batool A, Ashraf S. Hamstring Muscle Tightness and Chronic Low Back Pain an Analytical Study on General Population. Pakistan Journal of Medical & Health Sciences. 2022 Nov; 16(09): 637-.doi: 10.53350/pjmhs22169637.

Kunyahamu MS, Daud A, Jusoh N. Obesity among health-care workers: which occupations are at higher risk of being obese?. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021 Apr; 18(8): 4381. doi:10.3390/ijerph18084381.



DOI: 10.54393/tt.v5i01.200
Published: 2024-03-31

How to Cite

Jamil, K., Robinson, S., Abro, S. A., Hayat, S., Zia, K., Arzoo, O., Zaidi, F., & Ashraf, S. (2024). Prevalence of Hamstring Tightness Among Healthcare Workers: Hamstring Tightness among Healthcare Workers . THE THERAPIST (Journal of Therapies &Amp; Rehabilitation Sciences), 5(01), 62–67.